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THEGRIDstateofSacramentoCentralCitySacramento InsideCoverblank Introduction..................................................................1StudyContextStudyGoalsObjectivesTransportationPolicies......................................................7LandUseContext...........................................................13HistoryLandUseFrameworkCivicAmenitiesPedestrianNetwork........................................................21HistoryPlannedProjectsCurrentConditionsStrengthsOpportunitiesChallengesBicycleNetwork.............................................................00HistoryPlannedProjectsCurrentConditionsStrengthsOpportunitiesChallengesTransitNetwork...............................................................HistoryPlannedProjectsCurrentConditionsStrengthsOpportunitiesChallengesMotorVehicleNetwork.....................................................00HistoryPlannedProjectsCurrentConditionsStrengthsOpportunitiesChallengesParking.......................................................................00CONTENTS....................................29............................................37.........................................45.........................................55 INTRODUCTION 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID1INTRODUCTIONTheGridrepresentsthesinglemostdefningaspectotheCentralCitystransportationsystem.WhetheronootridingabicycletakingtransitordrivinganautomobilethetravelpatternsothosewholiveworkplayorvisitSacramentosCentralCityareshapedeverydaybythesystemogriddedstreetsthatcrisscrossthearea.InactmanylocalsreertotheareaboundedbytheSacramentoRiverBroadwayAlhambraBoulevardandtheUnionPacifcRailroadtrackssimplyastheGrid.WithinthisareacomprisedobothDowntownandMidtownalltravelmodesbeneftromtheeaseonavigatingtheorderlypatternouniormlyspacedandnamedstreets.DirectionsgivenontheGridotenconsistonomorethanthenamesotwocrossstreetsandsomebusinessesontheGridhaveevenincorporatedthislevelosimplicityintotheirnames.TheGridconsistsoanareaoapproximately4.25squaremileswithnumberednorth-southstreetsstartingromthewestattheSacramentoRiverandletteredeast-weststreetsstartingtothenorthattheUnionPacifcRailroadtrackswhichparalleltheAmericanRiver.LetteredandnumberedstreetsontheGridarespacedevery400eetandmostportionsotheGrideatureeast-westrunningalleyslocatedhalwaybetweenletteredstreetsresultingin200ootnorth-southspacingopublicroadways.ThesedistancesareeasilytraversedonootenhancingtheGridswalkabilityandpedestrianaccessibility. 2Inadditiontotheeaseonavigatingthepublicstreetsystemusersalsobenetromahighleveloaccessibilityprovidedbythecloselyspacedstreets.AndtheGridprovidesabuilt-inredundancyallowingormultiplepotentialtravelroutesbetweenoriginsanddestinations.Thisnotonlyoersvarietyortripswithintheareabutalsoprovidesorexibilitywithoutsignicantlyaddingtooveralltriplengths.AllusersotheGridexperiencethesebenetsbuttheslowermodesotraveli.e.walkingandbicyclingexperiencethemingreaterproportionsasindirecttravelpathsmaysubstantiallyincreaseanalreadylengthiertriptime.PedestriansinparticularhavealowertoleranceorcircuitoustravelpathsandtheaccessibilityaordedbytheGridincreasesthedesirabilityothisormotravel.TheGridalsoservesasaresilientsystemthathastheabilitytospreadoutvehicletrafcasportionsothesystemexperiencecongestionwhethercausedbythedailyonslaughtocommutersoranon-recurringeventsuchasatrafccollision.Driversbenetromtheabilitytoeasilyadapttheirtravelpathtoaparallelrouteloweringboththeamountodelayexperiencedbytheindividualaswellasothersusingthesystem.Thedispersionovehicletrafcalsobenetspedestriansandbicyclistsasewercarsonagivenstreetmayincreasetheirlevelocomort.StudyContextTheCityoSacramentorecognizesthatarstclassefcientmulti-modaltransportationsystemisnecessarytocreateadowntownthatisadesirableplaceorpeopletoworklivelearnandplay.The2030GeneralPlanenvisionsthattheCentralCitywillcaptureahighershareotheRegionsgrowthovertimewhichwillurtherincreasethedemandsupontheGrid.Severalstudiesincludingthe2030GeneralPlanhavealreadybeenpreparedortheCityoSacramento.TheseincludetheCityoSacramentoDowntownTransitStudytheCityoSacramentoPedestrianMasterPlantheCityCountyBikewayMasterPlanandtheSacramentoCentralCityParkingMasterPlan.TheDowntownTransportationStudyseekstouniytheworkandrecommendationspresentedinthesestudiesandpresentacoordinatedplanoinrastructureimprovementsortheCentralCity.TheGridwillneedtoevolvetobetterservemoretripsrommultipletravelmarketsusingmultiplemodesotravel.Muchothehistoricperspectiveonroadwaysystemsplanningwascenteredoncreatingahierarchicalclassicationoroadwayunctionocuseduponvehicularcapacity.ThisstudywilltakeabroadersystemsviewindevelopingautureplanortheCentralCitystransportationGridthatstrivestoaccommodatemoretripsusingmultipletravelmodes.Designingasingleroadwaytomeetallthedemandsandexpectationsoalltravelsmodesposesadifcultchallengeanddoingsootenresultsinastreetservingallmodesinalessthandesirableashion.TomeetthecomplexutureneedsotheCentralCitythisstudywillidentiyenhancementstotheGridthroughalayerednetworkperspective.InasystemolayerednetworkspriorityorenhancedacilitiesareidentiedorparticularmodesondierentsegmentsotheGridtoprovideasaerandmoreefcientsystem.Thestudywilldevelopauturetransportationnetworkandalistoprojectsneededtoprovideimprovedmobilityandaccessprotectresidentialneighborhoodsoptimizetheinteractionotransportationmodesprovideanappropriateamountoparkingattheappropriatepricelevelsandprovidesaeandefcientconnectionstothesurroundingareas. 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID3StudyGoalsObjectivesThegoalsotheDowntownTransportationStudyareto1deneacomprehensiveandstrategictransportationnetworkthatsupportsthepoliciesotheGeneralPlanand2prioritizesuturetransportationinvestments.TheollowingisapreliminarylistothemultipleandotencompetingobjectivesthatwillbeconsideredinthestudydeningwhichmodesshouldhavepriorityonkeystreetsegmentsmodiyingorexpandingDowntowngatewaystosustainregionalnetworkaccesscreatingopportunitiesoreconomicdevelopmentTheollowingisanillustrativelistoprojectsorprogramsthatmaybeconsideredduringtheStudy.PedestrianenhancementsNewbicycleacilitiesTransitprioritystreetsCompletestreetprojectsCulturaltrailAlleyactivationEVchargingstationsGatewayimprovementsParkingWayndingplancompletingthebicyclenetworkinDowntowntoaccommodateawiderangeouserabilitiesprovidinganenhancedpedestriannetworkespeciallywheremultiplemodesinterconnectcoordinatingtransitnetworkexpansionandoperationtoimproveefciencyandrequencyimprovingtransportationsystemreliabilityandmanagingtravelandparkingdemand. 4 TRANSPORTATIONPOLICIES 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID7TRANSPORTATIONPOLICIESTheGeneralPlanmobilityelementisstructuredtoaddresspoliciesoreachothefvekeylayersorelementsothetransportationnetwork.Italsodescribestheneedoramanagedparkingsystemthatbalancesmultipleandsometimescompetingobjectivesincludingeconomicdevelopmentlivableneighborhoodssustainabilityandpublicsaety.PedestrianelementTransitelementBicycleelementRoadwayelementGoodsmovementelementMobilitypoliciesthatwillinormthedevelopmentandevaluationotransportationsystemalterna-tivesortheDowntownTransportationStudyaredescribedintheGeneralPlanandCentralCityCommunityPlanthatwereadoptedin2009.AnexcerptromtheintroductionotheGeneralPlanMobilityElementprovidesasummaryotheoveralltransportationvision.TheGeneralPlanmobilitypoliciesdescribeatransportationnetworkthathastheollowingcharacteristicsandisdesignedtoreduceairpollutiongreenhousegasemissionsandenergyneeds.UniversallyaccessibleSaeIntegratedExpandedtravelchoicesWell-connectedConvenientTheMobilityElementcontainspoliciesthatwillcreateawell-connectedtransportationnetworksupportincreaseddensitiesandamixousesinmulti-modaldistrictshelpwalkingbecomemorepracticalorshorttripssupportbicyclingorshort-andlong-distancetripsimprovetransittoservehighlyrequenteddestinationsconserveenergyresourcesreducegreenhousegasemissionsandairpollutionanddosowhilecontinuingtoaccommodateautomobility. 8GeneralPlanMobilityPolicyExcerptsGOALPOLICYM1.1ComprehensiveTransportationSystem.Provideatransportationsystemthatiseectivelyplannedmanagedoperatedandmaintained.M1.2MultimodalSystem.Provideexpandedtransportationchoicestoimprovetheabilitytotravelefcientlyandsaelytodestinationsthroughoutthecityandregion.M1.3BarrierRemoval.Improvesystemconnectivitybyremovingbarrierstotravel.M1.3.1GridNetwork.TheCityshallrequireallnewresidentialcommercialormixed-usedevelopmentthatproposesorisrequiredtoconstructorextendstreetstodevelopatransportationnetworkthatprovidesorawell-connectedwalkablecommunitypreerablyasagridormodiedgrid.M1.4TransportationDemandManagement.Decreasethedependenceonsingle-occupantuseomotorvehiclesthroughTransportationDemandManagement.M1.5EmergingTechnologiesandServices.Useemergingtransportationtechnologiesandservicestoincreasetransportationsystemefciency.M2.1IntegratedPedestrianSystem.Designauniversallyaccessiblesaeconvenientandintegratedpedestriansystemthatpromoteswalking.M3.1SaeComprehensiveandIntegratedTransitSystem.Createandmaintainasaecomprehensiveandintegratedtransitsystemasanessentialcomponentoavibranttransportationsystem.M4.1RoadwaySystem.Createaroadwaysystemthatwillensurethesaeandefcientmovementopeoplegoodsandservicesthatsupportslivablecommunitiesandreducesairpollutionandgreenhousegasemissions.M4.2CompleteStreets.Providecompletestreetsthatbalancethediverseneedsousersothepublicright-o-way.M4.3NeighborhoodTrafc.EnsurethequalityoliewithinexistingneighborhoodsthroughtheuseoneighborhoodtrafcmanagementtechniqueswhilerecognizingtheCitysdesiretoprovideagridsystemthatcreatesahighleveloconnectivity.M4.4RoadwayFunctionalClassicationandTypology.Maintainaninterconnectedsystemostreetsthatallowstravelonmultipleroutesbymultiplemodes.M5.1IntegratedBicycleSystem.Createandmaintainasaecomprehensiveandintegratedbicyclesystemandsupportacilitiesthroughoutthecitythatencouragesbicyclingthatisaccessibletoall.M6.1ManagedParking.Provideandmanageparkingsuchthatitbalancesthecitywidegoalsoeconomicdevelopmentlivableneighborhoodssustainabilityandpublicsaetywiththecompactmulti-modalurbanenvironmentprescribedbytheGeneralPlan.M7.1GoodsMovement.Provideorthesaeandefcientmovementogoodstosupportcommercewhilemaintaininglivabilityinthecityandregion. 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID9CentralCityCommunityPlanMobilityPoliciesGOALPOLICYM1.1MajorStreetSystem.TheCityshallestablishamajorstreetsystemwhichwillroutevehiculartrafctotheactivityareasotheCentralCitywithoutdirectingsuchtrafcthroughresidentialneighborhoods.M1.2AdequateParking.TheCityshallprovideadequateo-streetparkingtomeettheneedsoshoppersvisitorsandresidents.M1.3ResidentialStreetParking.TheCityshallreducetheadverseimpactocommuterparkingonresidentialstreets.M1.4Peak-PeriodParking.TheCityshallcontinuepeak-periodcurbparkingrestrictionsonvariousstreetsinthedowntownareatoincreasecarryingcapacityreducetrafcdelaysandaidincirculation.M1.5RichardsBoulevardandBusiness80Connection.TheCityshalldesignatetheconnectionoRichardsBoulevardandBusiness80asapotentialtransportationcorridorthatmaybeconsideredintheutureorvariousmodesotravel.M1.6CommuterBikeways.TheCityshallprioritizetheadditionocommuterroutestoexistingbikeways.TheplanrecommendsthattheCityidentiyanorthsouthrouteandaneastwestbikeroutethatwouldbeimprovedorcommuteruse.Improvementswouldinvolvemodicationothestreetstoaccommodatebicyclecommutersratherthanexclusivelyorautouse.M1.7IncreasedFrequencyorTransit.TheCityshallencourageincreasedrequencyandschedulingreliabilityolocaltransitrouteswithintheCentralCityareaincludingsignalpre-emptioninallmajortransitcorridors.TheCentralCityCommunityPlanacomponentotheGeneralPlanidentieshowtheCentralCityasacommunitycontributestoandsupportstheoverallcitywidevisionidentiedintheGeneralPlan.TheCentralCityCommunityPlanmobilitypoliciescalloratransportationnetworkthatminimizestheimpactsovehicletrafcandparkingonresidentialneighborhoods.Theplancallsordesignationostreetsthatgiveprioritytreatmentstovehicletrafcbicycletrafcandtransitlines.Theimplementationostrategiestoreducetheimpactocommuterparkingonresidentialstreetsisanotherkeyaspectothemobilitypolicies. 10SuttersLandingParkwayPlannedMajorTransportationProjectsPlannedMajorTransportationProjectsJStLStPStQStEStXStWStNSt9thStBroadway16thSt10thSt7thSt29thSt21St24thStTSt19thStGSt30thStFStHSt8thSt34thStCStAlhambraBlvd12thStFrontStRichardsBlvdCapitolAve5thStKStNBSt3rdSt39thStIStN12thStJibboomStStocktonBlvd15thStN16thStFolsomBlvdCapitolMallMckinleyBlvdJeersonBlvd6thStWestCapitolAveN7thStLighthouseDrRiskeLnSouthRiverRdSacramentoAveCumminsWayDStTelevisionCir5thStIStKSt39thStHStTStCSt15thSt3rdSt39thStFStCStSouthRiverRd505-80GreenLineLRTExtensiontoAirportGreenLineLRTExtensiontoAirportNewBridgeLocationNewBridgeLocationNewBridgeLocationI-5RiverfrontReconnectionI-5RiverfrontReconnectionDowntownRiverfrontStreetcarDowntownRiverfrontStreetcarSacramentoValleyStationSacramentoValleyStation LANDUSECONTEXT 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID13LANDUSECONTEXTThetransportationnetworkenvisionedbytheGeneralPlannotonlyintegratesvarioustravelmodesbutalsorespondstoandinuencesthesurroundinglandusecontext.TheCitysGeneralPlancallsorawell-connectedtransportationnetworkthatsupportsincreaseddensitiesandamixousesinmulti-modaldistricts.AnexcerptromtheNationalAssociationoCityTransportationOfcialsNACTOUrbanStreetDesignGuideshownatrightshowshowgreatstreetsareanimportantpartothepublicrealm.X1841FoundingandconstructionoFortSutter.1849SacramentoCitygovernmentbeginswiththeadoptionothesecondCityCharter.1852Firedestroysmorethan85oSacramento.1861ConstructionbeginsontheStateCapitol.1848CaptainWilliamHWarnersurveysandlaysoutSacramentosstreetgrid.1850Caliorniabecomesthe31ststateintheunion.1854SacramentobecomesCaliorniasstatecapitol.THEGRIDLandUseContextGrowingurbanpopulationswilldemandthattheirstreetsservenotonlyascorridorsortheconveyanceopeoplegoodsandservicesbutasrontyardsparksplaygroundsandpublicspaces.NACTOUrbanStreetDesignGuide1880FirsttelephoneandelectriclightserviceareavailableinSacramento.1874ConstructionotheStateCapitolcompleted. 14areaknownastheWestEndorredevelopmentintoofcebuildingsCapitolMallandtheKStreetpedestrianmall.TheCentralCityPlanwasadoptedin1963andthenupdatedin1966.The1980CentralCityCommunityPlanmarkedamajordeparturerompastzoningpatternsandestablishednewlanduseandzoningregulationstoreectexistinglanduse.Therearetwenty-sevenhistoricdistrictsestablishedinCentralCityincludingQStreet12thStreetCommercial20thandNStreetAlkaliFlatBoulevardParkBungalowRowCStreetCommercialandIndustrialCapitalMansionsCapitolandCapitolAvenueCathedralSquareFremontParkMarshallParkMemorialAuditoriumMerchantStreetCesarChavezPlazaParkCBDPovertyRidgeRStreetSouthSideWashingtonWashingtonSchoolandWinnPark.HistorySacramentowasoundedin1849alongtheSacramentoRiverwaterrontandextendedeastalongJStreettowardsSuttersFort.TheCentralCitywasoriginallyreerredtoastheOldCityandcomprisedover700cityblocks.TheboundariesincludedallpropertiesbetweentheSacramentoRiveronthewesttheSouthernPacicMainLineRailroadleveeonthenorthAlhambraBoulevardontheeastandBroadwayonthesouth.Bythe1950stheOldCityhaddeterioratedintoblightedconditions.ThisdecayisexplainedinpartbythesuburbanmigrationpatternswhichwerecommonplaceacrossthecountryollowingWorldWarII.Themovementocityresidentsintothesuburbsresultedinalesspopulousandlessvibrantdowntown.TheCitydesignatedasixty-block1918SacramentoPublicLibraryopensat8thandIStreet.1909ConstructionoCityHallat915IStreet.20141925OpeningoMemorialAuditoriumConventionandCulturalCenter.1927AlhambraTheatreOpens1950OldCityhasdeterioratedintoblightedconditions1963TheCentralCityplanisadopted1980CentralCityCommunityPlanestablishesnewlanduseandzoningregulationstoreectexisitnglanduse 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID15 16LandUseFrameworkTheLandUseandUrbanDesignElementinPart2otheGeneralPlanincludesadiagramandsetodesignationsthatcombinedirectionorbothlanduseandurbanorm.Thesystemincludescomponentsthataddressstandardsandguidelinesorallowedusespopulationdensityandbuildingintensityaswellasurbanormcriteriaordierentneighborhoodsandcenters.TheCentralCityCommunityPlanareaisthecoreotheCityoSacramentoandservesasCaliorniasStateCapitol.TheurbandowntowncoreincludesStategovernmentbuildingscorporateofcesandbusinesseshigh-risecondominiumshistoricneighborhoodsparksandrecreationalareasnightlierestaurantsandshopsschoolsandindustrialandmanuacturingcomplexesallwithinatree-linedstreetgrid.TheCentralCitycontainsnumerousplannedinllparcelsinlargedistrictssuchastheRiverDistrictandtheRailyards.TheCentralCitycomprisesthirteenneighborhoodsincludingDosRiosTriangleAlkaliFlatMansionFlatsNewEraParkOldSacramentoDowntownBoulevardParkMarshallSchoolMidtownWinnParkCapitolAvenueSouthsideParkRichmondGrovePovertyRidgeandNewtonBooth.DesignatedneighborhoodcorridorsincludesectionsoIStreetKStreetPStreetRStreetandCapitolAvenueinMidtownandsectionso10thStreet16thStreetandSStreetintheSouthsideParkarea.TheCentralCityhasthehighestpercentageomulti-amilyattacheddwellingunitsandofceemploymentoanyothecityscommunityplanareas.ParksandrecreationareasaredistributedthroughouttheCentralCityGridandincludeovertwentysmallplazascityparksandwaterrontareaslikeTiscorniaPark9.83acresattheconuenceotheAmericanRiverandSacramentoRiverandSuttersLandingPark172.60acres. 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID17CivicAmenitiesTheCentralCityishometomorethanadozenexistingcivicamenitiesthatincludeentertainmenthistoricmuseumrecreationalandtouristacilities.Severalnewmajoramenitiesareintheprocessobeingimplemented.Thefguretotherightshowsthelocationomajorcivicamenities.PerhapsthetwomostrecognizablecivicamenitiesintheCentralCityaretheStateCapitolandtheOldSacramentoHistoricDistrict.TheStateCapitolhasbeenhometothestatelegislaturesince1869.TheadjacentCapitolParkhousesacivilwarmemorialgroveplantedin1897astatueoFatherJuniperoSerratheCaliorniaVietnamVeteransMemorialandtheCaliorniaVeteransMemorial.OldSacramentoisa28-acreNationalHistoricLandmarkDistrictandStateHistoricParkwithshoppingdiningentertainmenthistoricalattractionsandmuseumssetwithinthetimeotheCaliorniaGoldRushandtheTranscontinentalRailroad.TheSacramentoRiverandAmericanRiverParkwayaremajorrecreationalattractionsthatormthewesternandnorthernboundariesotheCentralCity.TheEntertainmentandSportsCenterESCisastate-o-the-artacilitywithapproximately17500seatsscheduledtoopenin2016thatwillserveasthelong-termhomeotheNationalBasketballAssociationNBASacramentoKings.TheESCwillcontainaperormancevenuethatcanbeconfguredorbasketballothersportingeventsconcertsconerencesandconventionstradeshowscircusesandamily-orientedshows.ItisestimatedthattheESCwouldbebookedoratotalo189eventdayswithannualattendanceoapproximately1.54millionpersons.MajorentertainmentvenuesincludetheBStreetTheatertheCommunityCenterTheaterMemorialAuditoriumandtheWellsFargoPavilion.TheE.ClaireRaleyCenterorthePerormingArtsisanewtheaterinthedevelopmentstages.MuseumsintheCentralCityincludetheCaliorniaAutoMuseumtheCaliorniaMuseumtheCaliorniaStateCapitalMuseumtheCaliorniaStateMilitaryMuseumtheCaliorniaStateRailroadMuseumtheCenterorContemporaryArttheCrockerArtMuseumtheGovernorsMansiontheLelandStanordMansiontheOldSacramentoSchoolhouseMuseumtheSacramentoCityArchivestheSacramentoHistoryMuseumtheStateIndianMuseumandSuttersFort.NewmuseumsinthedevelopmentstagesincludetheCaliorniaRailroadTechnologyMuseumtheCenterorSacramentoHistoryandthePowerhouseScienceCenter.TheSacramentoConventionCenterisamajorconventionandmeetingvenuelocatedjustnorthotheStateCapitol.TheConventionCentereaturesanexhibithallwith134000squareeetoexhibitspaceaballroomand31meetingrooms. 18 PEDESTRIANNETWORK 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID21PEDESTRIANNETWORKHistoryEarlysettlersoSacramentoacityoundedalongtheeasternbankotheSacramentoRiveracednumerouschallengesnottheleastowhichwasseasonalfoodingotheriverthatbroughtmanyothesettlerstoSacramentointherstplace.InresponsetothisthreattheCitylaunchedamajorpublicworkseortinthe1860sand1870sthestreetswereraisedintheoldestportionsothepresent-dayneighborhoodsoDowntownandOldSacramentocenteredalongJStreetandKStreet.WhiletheCitytookchargeoconstructing10oothighwallsoneithersideotheroadwayandllingthespaceinbetweenthesidewalkslocatedbetweenthenewlyconstructedwallsandtherontsobuildingswereviewedastheresponsibilityotheadjacentpropertyowner.Somepropertyownerstookituponthemselvestoraisethesidewalksinrontotheirbuildingsuptothenewstreetlevelwhileothersdidnot.ThisresultedinadisconnectednetworkowalkwaysandahazardoussituationorearlyresidentsotheCity.Howeverblock-by-blockthesidewalkswereeventuallyraisedtoauniormlevel.Thiswasotenaccomplishedbybuildingacapbetweenbuildingsandthenewstreetlevelleavingavoidbeneaththesidewalk.InactnumeroushollowsidewalksstillexistwithintheCentralCitytodayandareconsideredahistoricallysignicanteature.1860s1870sStreetswereraisedtoprotectromfooding.Sidewalkswereeventuallyrasiedtothenewstreetlevelleavinghollowspacesbeneaththenewsidewalk..THEGRIDPedestrianNetwork1879SacramentobecomesCaliorniaspermanentstatecapitol.1877TherstcementsidewalksinSacramentowerelaidonthegroundsotheStateCapitolbytheCaliorniaArticialStoneCompanyunderAdolphTeichertssupervision. 2220142006TheCityofSacramentoapprovesthecurrentPedestrianMasterPlanandaimstobetheWalkingCapital 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID23AstheCityexpandednewsidewalk-linedroadwayswereconstructedalongthesamegridtemplateasDowntownexpandingtothesouthandeastintopresent-dayMidtown.InDowntownmanyothesesidewalkswerebuiltbetween15to30eetwide.InMidtowntheportionotheGridlocatedeasto16thStreetnarrowersidewalksweregenerallyconstructed.Thisrefectedthelowerlevelsodensityandtheprimarilyresidentialnatureothearea.SidewalkwidthsinMidtowntypicallyrangedbetweensixeetinwidthinresidentialareasuptoteeneetinwidthalongmorecommercialstreetswithhigherpedestrianvolumes.ParticularlyinMidtownsidewalksontheGridwereseparatedromtheroadwaybyaplanterstripotenplantedwithlargeshadetreesatregularintervalsduetothe100degreesummerdays.AsredevelopmentoccurredduringtheensuingdecadesandthereewaysystemservingtheCentralCitywasconstructedinthe1960ssomesidewalksinbothDowntownandMidtownwerereconstructedtoasnarrowasourtoveeetinwidth.TodaytheoverwhelmingmajorityostreetsontheGrideaturesidewalksonbothsidesotheroadwayandmostintersectionsoletteredandnumberedstreetseaturecrosswalksonallapproaches.Notableexceptionstothisstatementinclude3rdStreet29thStreet30thStreetWStreetandXStreetwheresidewalksonthesideothestreetadjacenttoareewaywereremovedduringconstructionothereewaysystem. 24PlannedProjects1CapitolMallBridgeImprovementsReducetravellanesonbridgefromsixtofourtoallowforsidewalkwideningandenhancements2LightingupgradeinKStreetpedestriantunnelbeneathInterstate53rdStreet3RStreetMarketPlazaImprovements16thStreetto18thStreet4BroadwayStreetscapebetweenMillerParkandAlhambraBoulevard512thStreetStreetscape616thStreetStreetscapebetweenCStreetandBroadway7IStreetGatewaytoOldSacramentoImprovements8AlhambraBoulevardStreetscapebetweenCStreetandBroadway910thStreetStreetscapebetweenIStreetandLStreet123456897 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID25CurrentConditionsThegriddedsystemostreetswithintheCentralCityservesthemostwalkable4.25squaremileareaintheSacramentoregion.FiteenpercentotheresidentswithintheCentralCitywalktoworkonaregularbasiswhichequatestoapproximatelyvetimesrateothosewhochoosethisormocommuteintheCityasawholeandevidencesuggeststhatthepercentageowalktripsornon-commutetripsontheGridisevenhigher.SacramentosmildclimateandatterraincertainlycontributetocreatingthiswalkableenvironmentbutthetransportationsystemwithintheCentralCityalsoplaysastarringrole.TherelativelydensenetworkostreetswithintheCentralCityspacedevery400eetprovidesorahighleveloconnectivityandpedestrianaccessibility.ThevastmajorityostreetsontheGrideaturesidewalksonbothsidesothestreetmanyowhichareseparatedromtheroadwaybylandscapedbarriersandoron-streetparkingbothowhichincreasepedestriancomort.MoststreetsontheGridalsoeaturetalltreesbetweentheroadwayandsidewalk.Thesetreesoerpedestriansanadditionalaestheticalllypleasingbarrierromtheroadandtheirmaturecanopyoersshaderomdirectsunlight.Pedestriallightingisprominentinmanyrecentlyredevelopedareaswhicheaturestreet-rontbusinessesormixedcommercialandresidentialuses.Thislightingislesscommoninmoreresidentialareaswheredimmerstreetlightsaresometimesonlypresentatintersections.OtheractorsthatcontributetothepedestrianexperienceincludethedispersionoautomobiletrafcacrosstheGridwhichresultsinmoststreetshavingnomorethantwoorthreetravellanesandshortcrossingdistancesorpedestriansandrelativelylowvehicletravelspeedswhichincreasepedestriancomortandsaety.TrafcsignalsontheGridoperateonrelativelyshortcyclelengthsandmosthaveautomaticwalksignalsorpedestrianscombinedtheseeaturesresultinlowlevelsodelayorpedestriansatintersectionsthroughouttheareaurtherincreasingthedesirabilityopedestriantravel.StrengthsOpportunitiesSystemogriddedstreetswith400ootblocklengthsprovideshighlevelopedestrianaccessibilityandmultipledirecttravelpathsbetweendestinations.ManystreetsontheGrideaturerelativelylowtravelspeedsandtrafcvolumesresultinginincreasedpedestriansaetyandcomort.TheredundancyotheGridallowsorindividualstreetstohaveewertravellanesmoststreetsontheGrideaturetwo-to-threevehicletravellaneswhichresultsinshortercrossingdistancesorpedestriansatintersections.HighlevelosidewalkcoveragewithintheCentralCitymajorityoroadwayshavecontinuoussidewalksonbothsides.MosttrafcsignalswithintheCentralCityoperatewithrelativelyshortcyclelengthsi.e.70secondsorlessandeatureautomaticpedestrianwalkphasesresultinginlowcrossingdelaystopedestrians.ThevastmajorityosidewalkswithintheCentralCityeatureaplanterstripseparatingthesidewalkromtheroadwayandmanyotheseplanterstripscontaintreesplantedatregularintervals.Thecanopyostreettreesnotonlyshadesthesidewalksonwarmdaysbutalsoservesasaphysicalbuerbetweenpedestriansandvehicles.Bothothesequalitiesassistinincreasingthelevelocomortassociatedwithpedestriantravelandslowingvehiculartrafc. 26Extensivesystemoeast-westalleysenhancesaccesstoparcelsaswellasutilitymaintenancerepairandgarbagecollectionvehicleswhilelimitingthenumberocurbcutsresultinginimprovedpedestriansaety.Relativelyatterraincombinedwithmildclimateincreaseattractivenessopedestriantravel.ChallengesSomeintersectionsalongprimaryvehiculartravelroutesthateaturemultipleturnlaneslackcrosswalksonallapproachesresultinginpotentialout-o-directiontravelorpedestrians.Selectroadwaysadjacenttoreewayse.g.3rdStreetWStreetXStreet29thStreet30thStreetandbeneathmultiplereewayovercrossingslacksidewalksalongbothsidesothestreet.LackosufcientsidewalkclearzonewidthadjacenttosomeareasotheCentralCityexperiencingredevelopmentandincreasedpedestrianactivitye.g.westsideo20thStreetbetweenJStreetandKStreeteastsideo18thStreetbetweenRStreetandSStreeteastsideo16thStreetbetweenOStreetandPStreeteastsideo12thStreetbetweenCStreetandDStreeteastsideo18thStreetbetweenLStreetandCapitalAvenue.SomeblockswithintheCentralCitye.g.LStreetandCapitolAvenueonlyeatureautomobile-scalelightinganddensetreecover.Thiscreatesdarksidewalkswhichmaydiscouragepedestrianuse.Inconsistentlevelsopedestrianinrastructurealongselectcorridorse.g.sidewalkclearzoneonsouthsideoBroadwaybetween17thStreetand21stStreetvariesblockbyblockrangingromanarrowourootwideareatoarelativelyspacious15ootwidearea.ThreemajorreewaysbisecttheCentralCitycreatingbothphysicalandpsychologicalbarrierstoaccessandmobility.Trafcsignalsalongselectone-waystreetsthatarecoordinatedtoacilitatethemovementomotorvehicletrafcmayresultinhigheraveragevehicletravelspeedspotentiallyreducingthecomortandsaetyopedestrians.Formerstatehighwayse.g.12thStreet16thStreetBroadwayhavelargercurbradiiatsomeintersectionswhichmayencouragehighertrafcspeeds. BICYCLENETWORK 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID29BICYCLENETWORKIIon-streetbicyclelanes.OtherroadwayswithinMidtownwereputonroaddietsandhadtheirnumberotravellanesreducedromthreetotwothesereductionsinthenumberomotorvehiclelanesreeduproomtoaccommodatededicatedbicyclelanes.AndinDowntownmanyothededicatedon-streetbicyclelaneswereinstalledduringonlythepastewyearsincludinglaneson5thStreet9thStreet10thStreetGStreetHStreetIStreetJStreetandCapitolMall.HistoryWhilebicycletransportationhasbeenapartogettingaroundontheGridoroveracenturythehistoryotheGridsbicyclenetworkdoesnotstretchasarbackasthehistoryoothermodesandisinsteadastoryorelativelyrecentevents.MostmajorbicycleacilitiesservingtheCentralCitycameintoexistencewithinthepastewdecades.Itwasduringthistimethatmultipleone-waystreetsinMidtownwereconvertedtotwo-wayoperationandsawtheadditionoClassX1880SacramentoBeearticlementionstheMarysvilleDistrictAttorneyridinginCapitolParkthisistheearliestrecordoabicyclevelocipedeintheSacramentoValley.1913TheSacramentoPDhad36ofcerswhopatrolledthecityonootandbicycle.TheDepartmentownedtwobicycles.1962CityadoptstheAmericanRiverParkwayconcept.1886FormationotheCapitalCityWheelmencyclingclub.1915DevelopmentotheearliestconceptotheAmericanRiverParkway.THEGRIDBicycleNetwork JStLStPStQStEStXStWStNSt9thStBroadway16thSt10thSt7thSt29thSt21St24thSt19thStGSt30thStFSt8thSt34thStAlhambraBlvd12thStFrontStRichardsBlvdCapitolAve5thStKStNBSt3rdStIStN12thStJibboomStStocktonBlv15thStN16thStCapitolMallMckinleyBlJeersonBlvd6thStWestCapitolAveN7thStLighthouseDrRiskeLnSouthRiverRdSacramentoAveCumminsWayDStTelevisionCir5thStIStKStHStTStCSt15thSt3rdStFStCStSouthRiverRd505-80123301993TheCityofSacramentoadoptstheSacramentoCountyBicycleMasterPlanPlannedProjects1TwoRiversBikeTraileastBiketrailalongthesouthleveeoftheAmericanRiverfromSacramentoNorthernTrailtoSuttersLandingParkwaysite2VStreetbetween8thStreetand18thStreetbikelanes3SuttersLandingBridgeProvidebicyclepedestrianconnectionovertheAmericanRiverbetweentheAmericanRiverParkwayandSuttersLandingPark20142012DowntownOn-StreetBikewayImprovementsImplemented 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID31 32lanecoverageismorebalancedintheeast-westandnorth-southdirectionshoweverDowntownsbicyclelanenetworkissomewhatconcentratedinthenorthernportionotheareanorthoCapitolMall.Severalotheprimaryeast-westbicycleroutesinMidtowndonotextendthroughDowntowne.g.FStreetKStreetLStreetNStreetPStreetandQStreet.Thenetworkoon-streetbicyclelaneswithinMidtownportionotheGridlocatedeasto16thStreetprovidesarelativelyhighdegreeoeast-westconnectivityandalowerlevelonorth-southconnectivitytwelveeast-weststreetseatureon-streetClassIIbicyclelanesandsixnorth-southstreetsoerextendedsectionswithon-streetClassIIbicyclelanes.WithinDowntownportionotheGridlocatedwesto16thStreeton-streetbicycleCurrentConditionsTheGridservesasthehubotheSacramentoregionsbicyclenetwork.TheSacramentoRiverBikeTrailTwoRiversBikeTrailandSacramentoNorthernBikeTrailallservetheCentralCityandjustacrosstheAmericanRivertheAmericanRiverBikeTrailstretchesor33milesbetweenSacramentoandFolsomLake.TheseacilitiesservetheperipheryotheGridandtheGriditselunctionsasthebicyclenetworkwithinDowntownandMidtown.ManystreetsontheGrideaturerelativelyslowtravelspeedsandlowtrafcvolumes.TheredundancyotheGridprovidesmultiplerouteoptionsallowingbicycliststotakeadvantageostreetsparalleltomajormotorvehicletravelroutesthatstillprovidethesamehigh-qualitydirectconnectionsbetweendestinations.Inadditiontothenumerouslow-speedlow-volumestreetsoundontheGridmanystreetswithrelativelyhighermotorvehicletrafcvolumesandspeedseaturededicatedon-streetbicyclelanes.OntheeasternhalotheGridinMidtownmostone-waystreetswhichhavehighermotorvehicletrafcvolumesandaveragetravelspeedseatureon-streetClassIIbicyclelanesonbothsidesotheroadwaywithJStreettheone-wayportionoIStreetandone-waystreetsthatserveasreewayrontageroadsrepresentingtheonlyexceptions.One-waystreetswithinDowntownhavelowerlevelsoon-streetbicyclelanecoveragebutrecentprojectshaveexpandedthenumberobicyclelaneswithinDowntown.JStLStPStQStEStXStWStNSt9thSt16thStBroadway5thSt10thSt7thSt21StSt29thSt24thSt15thSt19thStGSt30thSt8thStAlhambraBlvdCSt12thStFrontStCapitolAveKStNBSt3rdStIStJibboomStFStTStCapitolMallHStRiversideBlvdSouthRiverrdN16thStDStISt3rdStFStKStTStHSt505-80StressIndex1234BicycleStressIndex 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID33ThisnetworkostreetswithbicyclelanesintheCentralCityprovidesmorecondentbicyclistswithrouteoptionsthatalloworhigheraveragetravelspeedsastheselanesaretypicallyonmoremajorstreetsthateaturecoordinatedsignaltimingsandlimitedstops.Lesscondentbicycliststendtopreerlowervolumestreetsandaregenerallynotasconcernedabouttheirtravelspeed.CombinedtheGridsbicyclenetworkhandleseightpercentothecommutetripsorresidentsotheCentralCitywhichequatestoapproximatelyourtimesrateothosewhochoosetocommutebybicycleintheCityasawhole.StrengthsOpportunitiesThewestsideandnorthsideotheCentralCityareankedbymajorClass1bicycleacilitiestheAmericanRiverBikeTrailandtheSacramentoRiverBikeTrail.Additionallythenorth-southSacramentoNorthernBikeTrailtiesintotheGridbetween19thand20thStreetsandprovidesaccesstotheAmericanRiverBikeTrail.Systemogriddedstreetswith400ootblocklengthsprovideshighlevelobicycleaccessibilityandmultipledirecttravelpathsbetweendestinations.ManystreetsontheGrideaturerelativelylowtravelspeedsandtrafcvolumesresultinginincreasedbicyclesaetyandcomort.Extensivesystemoeast-westalleysenhancesaccesstoparcelsaswellasutilitymaintenancerepairandgarbagecollectionvehicleswhilelimitingthenumberocurbcutsresultinginimprovedbicyclesaety.ThreemajorreewaysbisecttheCentralCitycreatingbothphysicalandpsychologicalbarrierstoaccessandmobility.Relativelyatterraincombinedwithmildclimateincreaseattractivenessobicycletravel. 34ChallengesThebicycleacilitynetworkwithinthewesternportionotheCentralCityi.e.DowntownlacksthesameleveloconnectivityandcoverageasthebicyclenetworkintheeasternportionotheCentralCityi.e.Midtown.Manyeast-weston-streetClassIIbicyclelanesinMidtowndonotextendtothewestbeyond15thStreet.Severaleast-weston-streetClassIIbicycleacilitiesarediscontinuousbeneaththeCapitalCityFreewayintheeasternportionotheCentralCity.ManystreetswithinDowntownhavein-streettracksorlightrailwhicharedifculttonavigateorbicyclists.Therequencyotwo-waystopcontrolledintersectionscanimpedetheowocyclistsontheGrid.Thismayencouragecycliststodisobeystopsignsorothertrafccontrolmeasures. TRANSITNETWORK 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID37AstheCityspopulationcontinuedtogrowrealestatedeveloperspartneredwiththestreetcarcompaniestoservenewneighborhoods.TheselinesservedthestreetcarsuburbsoOakParkCurtisParkEastSacramentoandLandPark.ThesenewstreetcarlinesalsoservedmajorrecreationaldestinationssuchasMcKinleyParkJoylandinOakParkEdmondsFieldBaseballParkandtheoriginalCaliorniaStateFairgrounds.Thefrstelectrictrolleylinewasopenedin1890.Electricstreetcarswereastersimplertomaintainandcheapertooperatethanhorsedrawnstreetcars.ThestreetcarsystembecamepartoTRANSITNETWORKHistoryCompletionothetranscontinentalrailroadin1869withSacramentoasitswesternterminusbroughtwithitrapidpopulationgrowthandtheneedoratransportationsystemtosupportit.Anetworkostreetcarsservedthatpurposeormorethan75years.ThefrstpermanentstreetcarlinebeganoperationinSacramentoin1870.Theearlieststreetcarswerehorse-drawn.Thedowntownrailstationwasthehubothestreetcarsystem.TheCentralPacifcDepotbuiltin1879toreplacetheoriginaldepotatFrontandKstreetswasthedowntownterminusormanystreetcarlines.X1863ConstructionotheCentralPacifcRailroadbeginswithagroundbreakingceremonyatFrontandKStreets.1973RTbeginsoperationswithacquisitionotheSacramentoTransitAuthority.1991LaunchoCapitolCorridorwithsixtrainsperdaybetweenSacramentoandSanJose.1998OpeningofrstlightrailextensiontoMatherFieldMills.1891CentralStreetRailwayreplaceshorse-drawnstreetcarswithtrolly-drivenstreetcars.1971RTcreatedbyCaliorniaStateLegislature.1993RTbeganoperatingCNGueledbuses.THEGRIDTransitNetwork1913BeginningoSacramentoNorthernconnectingservicebetweenOaklandandSacramento.1987RTlightrailsystemopens. 38FourdecadesaterthedisappearanceostreetcarsthereturnorailtransittothestreetsotheCentralCityoccurredin1987.DuringthisyearRTsfrstlightraillineopenedconnectingtheCentralCitytotheneighborhoodslocatednorthandeastoDowntown.Thefrstexpansionolightrailservicetookplacein1998whichextendedserviceurthertotheeast.TheBlueLineopenedin2003connectingtheCentralCitytoneighborhoodslocatedtothesouth.ThenextthreeyearseachsawexpansionsothelightrailsystemextendingiturthertotheeastandalsoprovidingadirectconnectiontotheSacramentoValleyStationwithintheCentralCity.Thelatestexpansionothesystemoccurredin2012withtheopeningothefrstphaseotheGreenLinetotheTownship9Station.PGEin1906.PGEsoldthestreetcarsystemtoPacifcCityLinesin1943duetoaederallawrestrictingtheutilitysabilitytoownastreetcarcompany.Thestreetcarlineclosedouryearslaterin1947.StreetcarsinSacramentoexperiencedthesameateassystemsthroughouttheUnitedStatesasautomobiletravelexplodedandgrowthspiraledoutwardromtheCentralCitythesystemwasdismantled.Gas-poweredbusesreplacedelectricstreetcarsonthestreetsoSacramentoandinactRegionalTransitsRTmodern-daybusmaintenanceacilityattheeasternedgeotheCentralCitysitsonthesiteotheCentralElectricRailwaycarbarn.Thisprocessbeganinthe1930swhenPGEpurchaseditsfrstbuseswhichwereusedinareaswithlowerridershiptoreplacestreetcarsandinareasnotservedbythestreetcarsystem.2006FinalsegmentothelightrailGoldLineopenstoSacramentoValleyStationwithadditionotwonewstations.2012OpeningothelightrailGreenLinetotheRiverDistrict.2005Lightrailextended7.3mileseastromSunrisetoFolsomwhichincludedournewstations.2003OpeningolightrailBlueLinePhaseIwithsevennewstations.2004LightrailextendedromMatherFieldMillstoSunrise2014 JStLStPStQStEStXStWStNSt9thStBroadway16thSt10thSt7thSt29thSt21St24thSt19thStGSt30thStFStHSt8thSt34thStCAlhambraBlvd12thStFrontStRichardsBlvdCapitolAve5thStKStNBSt3rdStIStN12thStJibboomStStocktonBlvd15thStN16thStFolsCapitolMallMckinleyBlvdJeersonBlvd6thStWestCapitolAveN7thStLighthouseDrRiskeLnSouthRiverRdSacramentoAveCumminsWayDStTelevisionCir5thStIStKStHStTStCSt15thSt3rdStFStCStSouthRiverRd505-80GreenLineLRTExtensiontoAirportGreenLineLRTExtensiontoAirportDowntownRiverfrontStreetcarDowntownRiverfrontStreetcarCapitolCorridorSacramentoValleyStationSacramentoValleyStation21342.0STATEOFTHEGRID39PlannedProjects1DowntownRiverrontStreetcar2SacramentoValleyStation3GreenLineExtension4CapitolCorridorSacramento-Roseville3rdTrackProjectCurrentConditionsTheSacramentoRegionalTransitDistrictRTservesastheprimaryproviderolocaltransitserviceontheGridwhichunctionsasthehuboRTsregionalbusandrailnetworks.Region-wideRToperates67busroutesand38.6milesolightrailonthreelines.AllthreelightraillinesBlueLineGoldLineandGreenLineconvergeinDowntownandrunconcurrentlyontheportionothesystemlocatedbetween7thStreet13thStreetKStreetandRStreet.The16thStreetStationlocatednearthecenterotheGridattheborderbetweenMidtownandDowntownhasthehighestnumberodailyboardingsintheentirelightrailsystemdueinparttothelargenumberotransersbetweentheBlueLineandGoldLinethatoccuratthisstation.RegionalTransitsbusesandlightrailrun365daysayearusing76lightrailvehicles182busespoweredbycompressednaturalgasand11shuttlevansRT2014.Theannualridershiponthesystembusandlightrailhasgrownrom14millionpassengersin1987tomorethan45millionpassengersinFiscalYear2010.Weekdaylightrailridershipaveragesabout46000andtheweekdaybusridershiphasincreasedtoapproximately50000passengersperdayRT2013.Until2009RToeredaCentralCityFarethatallowedriderstotravelanywhereontheGridorafatareo1.Howeverthisarewaseliminatedduetobudgetconstraintsresultinginasystem-widefatarecurrently2.50.Thesystem-widefataredisincentivesshorttransittripsontheGridas 40aquickjourneybetweencloselyspacedlightrailstationscoststhesameasa20-milecommutetripromthesuburbs.ConsequencesothischangeinarestructureincludepotentialtransitridersontheGridshitingtoothermodesotransportation.YolobusalsooperatesbusserviceontheGridconnectingDowntowntolocationslocatedacrosstheSacramentoRiverinYoloCountyvialocalroutesaswellascommuterservice.InadditiontoYolobusnumerousothertransitprovideswithintheSacramentoregionofercommuterservicetotheGridtheseagenciesincludeElkGroveTransite-tranRosevilleTransitElDoradoTransitYuba-SutterTransitFolsomStageLinestheSanJoaquinRegionalTransitDistrictandAmadorRegionalTransit.ThesecommuterservicesutilizeRTstopsontheGridthataresharedwithlocalbusservice.CommuterstotheGridalsohavetheabilitytotravelbyintercityrail.TheSacramentoValleyStationislocatedDowntownjustnorthoIStreetbetween3rdStreetand5thStreet.ThisstationisservedbytwolongdistanceAmtrakroutestheCoastStarlightSeattle-Portland-Sacramento-LosAngelesandtheCaliorniaZephyrEmeryville-Sacramento-Denver-Chicago.AdditionallythestationisservedbytwoAmtrakCaliorniaregionalroutestheSanJoaquinSacramento-BakerseldandtheCapitolCorridor.TheCapitolCorridorisanintercitypassengertrainservicebetweenSanJoseOaklandSanFranciscoandSacramentoPlacerCountyalonga170-milerailcorridorandcarriesthevastmajorityothepassengersusingtheSacramentoValleyStation.AmtraksFiscalYear2013NationalFactSheetliststheSacramentoValleyStationas7thinthenationintotalAmtrakridershipwithover1.1millionpassengersannually.TheRTGoldLineconnectstheAmtrakstationtotheSacramentoregionslightrailtransitnetworkandthestationisalsoservedbyAmtrakintercitybusesandlocalRTbuses. 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID41 42CentralCitye.g.BroadwayStationplatormonlyaccessibleromthenorthnosidewalkson29thStreetor30thStreetadjacentto29thStreetStation.Perceivedsaetysecuritydeciencies.Sharedlocalcommuterbusstoplocationswithhighlevelsoserviceexperiencestackingobusesthatresultsindelays.Fareevasion.DifculttoalterroutesChallengesLackoexistinghigh-qualitycirculatorserviceortripswithintheCentralCity.BusrouteswithintheCentralCityoperateentirelyinmixed-owtravellanes.Fundingconstraintsresultedintheeliminationothe1CentralCityFarein2009requiringriderstopayaullarecurrently2.50oralltrips.Fundingconstraintsresultinlimitedservicei.e.headwaysandhoursooperation.LackopedestrianbicyclenetworkconnectivitytoselectLRTstationswithintheStrengthsOpportunitiesTheSacramentoValleyStationtheregionsintercitypassengerrailhubislocatedinthenorthwesternportionotheGrid.AllRegionalTransitLRTserviceconvergeswithintheCentralCity.NumeroussuburbantransitprovidersprovidecommuterbusservicetoromtheCentralCity. MOTORVEHICLENETWORK 1905Thereare27registeredautomobilesinSacramentoCounty.2.0STATEOFTHEGRID45Theconstructionothereewaysysteminthe1960sresultedintheabandonmentoseveralpiecesotheGridessentiallysacricingadegreeolocalaccessorahigherlevelointerregionalmobility.AndthereewaysystemchangedtheGridinotherwaysmanyothestreetsthatlinkeddirectlytothenewlyconstructedreewayon-ando-rampswereconvertedromtwo-waytoonewayoperation.TheseconversionsincreasedthecapacityothesestreetstohandlehighertrafcowstoromthereewayandmorphedtheGridtohelpcompensateortheconcentrationotrafcHistoryUntilthe1960sthegriddednetworkostreetsservedasthelonetransportationsystemcarryingvehicleswithinandthroughtheCentralCity.ButSacramentohaddevelopedareputationasacitywithatrafcproblemandashappenedinmanycitiesthroughouttheUnitedStatesduringthiseraleaderscalledoranaccess-controlledreewaysystemtospeedtheowocarsinandoutotheCity.InoneshortdecadetheGridwasramedwithanelevatedreewaysystemUSHighway50onthesouthernendtheCapitalCityreewayontheeastandInterstate5tothewest.MOTORVEHICLENETWORK1903FirstautomobileracesattheCaliorniaStateFair.1962Conversionomanytwo-waystreetstoone-waystreets.1910Automobileregistrationsincreaseby700.1960Access-controlledreewaysystembeganconstruction.1973Plansexistedtoconvertone-waystreetsbacktotwo-way.THEGRIDMotorVehicleNetwork110YEARS1911Sacramentansbought75automobilesperday.1935OpeningotheTowerBridgewithourvehiclelanesandonecenterlaneortrains. 46onselectstreetswithintheGridthattiedintothereewaysystem.Asearlyasthe1970splansexistedtocovertsomeotheone-waystreetsbacktotwo-wayoperation.Theearliestconversionstotwo-wayoperationswereonpartsoEStreetFStreetGStreetHStreetSStreetandTStreet.In2006amorecomprehensiveevaluationopotentialtwo-wayconversionswasconducted.Thisstudyultimatelyresultedintheimplementationoone-waytotwo-wayconversionsonaportionoNStreetandoneblockoJStreetinMidtownandonportionso9thStreetand10thStreetandoneblocko3rdStreetinDowntown.Thestudyalsoleadtolanereductionson19thStreet21stStreetLStreetPStreetandQStreetinMidtown.Eachothesestreetswasmodifedromthreevehicletravellanestotwoandon-streetbicyclelaneswereaddedonbothsidesotheseroadways.2006Comprehensiveevaluationotwo-wayconversions.2014 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID47PlannedProjects1SuttersLandingParkway2RailyardsRoadwayInrastructure3I-5RiverrontReconnectionProject43rdStreetTwo-WayConversion5BroadwayBridge6IStreetBridgeReplacement7TruxelBridgeOne-WayTrafcon3rdStreettIStreetBridget SuttersLandingParkwayJStLStPStQStEStXStWStNSt9thStBroadway16thSt10thSt7thSt29thSt21St24thStTSt19thStGSt30thStFStHSt8thSt34thStCStAlhambraBlvd12thStFrontStRichardsBlvdCapitolAve5thStKStNBSt3rdSt39thStIStN12thStJibboomStStocktonBlvd15thStN16thStFolsomBlvdCapitolMallMckinleyBlvdJeersonBlvd6thStestCapitolAveN7thStLighthouseDrRiskeLnSouthRiverRdSacramentoAveCumminsWayDStTelevisionCir5thStIStKSt39thStHStTStCSt15thSt3rdSt39thStFStCStSouthRiverRd505-80GreenLineLRTExtensiontoAirportNewBridgeLocationNewBridgeLocationNewBridgeLocationI-5RiverfrontReconnectionI-5RiverfrontReconnection132456748 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID49CurrentConditionsThehighleveloroadwaynetworkconnectivityoundontheGridallowsstreetswithintheCentralCitytounctionasanadaptablesystemabletoaccommodatesignicantlevelsotraveldemand.DuetothenumerouspotentialtravelpathsbetweentwopointsontheGridthesystemdispersesmotorvehicletrafcthroughouttheCentralCity.WhenstressedwithhightrafcvolumesorlaneclosurestheGridhastheabilitytospreadoutmotorvehicletrafc.MotoristsbenetrombeingabletoeasilyadapttheirtravelpathtoanearbyparallelrouteConstructionothereewaysystemnecessitatedtheabandonmentomultiplepiecesotheGrid.Butwhilethismaybethesinglelargestcauseopresent-dayGriddiscontinuitymultipleothercomponentsotheGridhavebeenremovedduringthepastseveraldecades.Currentoccupantsoormerstreetsincludeashoppingmallconventioncentergarden-styleapartmentslightrailtracksstationsandgovernmentofcebuildings.Someothesestreetsnolongerexistinanyormwhileothersremainaspublicrights-o-wayandareopentopedestriansandbicyclistsbutnotmotorvehiclesothersremaininplacebutarenotopentothepublicatall.RegardlessothereasonsormeritsorclosuresabandonmentsopiecestheGridallhaveresultedinsomelevelodiscontinuityandaectpresent-daytravelpatternsontheGrid.loweringboththeamountodelayexperiencedbytheindividualaswellasothersusingthesystem.Thepresenceoone-waycoupletsontheGridcontributestocreatingahierarchyoroadwayswitharterialshandlingthehighestlevelsodemandandlocalstreetshandlingthelowestlevelsodemand.Theone-waystreetsunctionasarterialroadwaysandmotoristsonthesecorridorsbenetromewerstop-controlledintersectionscoordinatedtrafcsignaltimingplansandmultipletravellanesint 50 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID51reewaysduetotheirpreviouslydiscusseddesigneatures.Becauseotheconcentrationotrafcontheseone-wayroadwaysnearthereewaysintersectionsincloseproximitytomajorreewayon-ando-rampstendtoexperiencethehighestamountsomotorvehicledelayontheGrid.HoweverthesedelaysaretypicallylimitedtopeakhoursandoveralltheroadwaysystemwithintheCentralCityoperatesefciently.StrengthsOpportunitiesSystemogriddedstreetswith400ootblocklengthsprovideshighlevelovehicularaccessibilityandallowsorredundancyduringcongestion-causingevents.One-wayarterialstreetsabletohandlehightrafcowstoromregionalreewaysystem.Coordinatedsignaltimingplansprovideorefcientvehicleprogressionalongkeyarterialroutes.Extensivesystemoeast-westalleysenhancesaccesstoparcelsaswellasutilitymaintenancerepairandgarbagecollectionvehicleswhilelimitingthenumberocurbcutsresultinginimprovedvehicularow.onedirectiontheseeaturesassistinincreasingmotorvehiclethroughputandreducingaveragetraveltimesordrivers.Mostone-waystreetsontheGridlinkdirectlytoreewayon-ando-rampstherampsunctionastheprimaryvehiculargatewaysinandoutotheCentralCityandconcentratemotorvehicletripsonasubsetothestreetsthatcomposetheGrid.Theone-wayarterialshavetheabilitytohandlethehighertrafcvolumesincloseproximitytothe 52ChallengesThreemajorreewaysbisecttheCentralCitycreatingbothphysicalandpsychologicalbarrierstoaccessandmobility.LimitednumberobridgesacrosstheAmericanRiverandSacramentoRiverresultsinhightrafcvolumesandcongestiononexistingcrossingsandreducedmobility.GatewaystoromreewayswithintheCentralCityexperiencehighestlevelsocongestion.Hal-streetclosuresinstalledwithinthenorthernportionoMidtownposechallengestolocalaccessandresultintheconcentrationotrafconselectresidentialstreets.StreetabandonmentsclosuresinportionsotheCentralCityhaveresultedingapswithintheGridresultinginreducedvehicularaccessandconcentrationotrafconadjacentstreetse.g.KStreetbetween13thand14thStreets4thStreetbetweenIandLStreetsCStreetbetween17thand19thStreetsmultipleblocksoOStreetwithinDowntown6thStreetbetweenCapitalMallandPStreet4thStreetbetweenQandRStreets22ndStreetbetweenQandRStreets. PARKING 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID55HistoryTheneedormotorizedvehicleparkingintheCentralCitybeganwiththeintroductionotheautomobileintheearly1900s.InitiallyparkingwasinormalalongCitystreetsandonprivateproperties.Asthenumberoautomobilesgrewon-streetparkingregulationswereormulatedandprivateo-streetparkinglotsandgaragesweredeveloped.Asearlyas1937theCityconsideredbutrejectedon-streetparkingmeters.Apublicreerendumrejectedmetersbyoverathree-to-onemargin.PARKINGFollowingWorldWarIItheinfuxotheautomobilebeganaparkingtransormationintheCentralCity.By1945theCityhadcontractedwiththeDuncanMeterCorporationorparkingmeters.CharterAmendmentsin1948ledtoCity-ownedo-streetparkingacilities.Threesiteswereestablishedin1950LotAnowthesiteotheUSBankToweronCapitolMallat7thStreetLotBnowthesiteotheCalEPAHeadquartersBuildingat10thandIStreetsandLotCnowthesiteotheMemorialGarage.TherstCity-ownedparkinggarageswereonLotAandLotBtwo-levelparkingdecks1900InitialparkingwasinormalalongCitystreetsandonprivateproperties.1969Capitolgarageconstructed.1975Towerbridgegarageconstructed.1937Cityconsidersandrejectson-streetparkingmetersinapublicreerendum.1950ThreeCity-ownedo-streetparkingacilitiesestablished.THEGRIDParking1945CityhascontractedwiththeDuncanMeterCorporationorparkingmeters.1970sDowntownplazagaragesconstructed. 56builtinthe1950s.City-ownedgaragesthatollowedincludetheCapitolGarage196910thandLStreetsTowerBridgeGarage1975CapitolMallandFrontStreetOldSacramentoGarage1980underI-5CityHallGarage199010thandIStreetsandMemorialGarage200114thandHStreets.ConcurrentwiththeCityeortsothero-streetparkinglotsandgarageswereconstructed.DowntownPlazaGarageswereconstructedinthe1970s.Allmajorprivateofcebuildingsincluded1990CityHallgarageconstructed.1978Residentialparkingprogramsinitiated.20142001Memorialgarageconstructed.parkingstructuresandtheStateoCaliorniaandCountyoSacramentoconstructedlotsandgaragestoaccommodatetheiremployeesandvisitors.Residentialpermitparkingprogramswereinitiatedin1978tominimizeon-streetparkingconictsbetweenresidentsandDowntownworkers.TheCityrstestablishedon-streetpaystationsin2007andcontinuetoupgradetheon-streetparkingmetersando-streetparkingaccessandrevenuecontrolsystemsPARCS.PlannedProjectsPledgeoaportionoparkingsystemrevenuetopaybackbondsusedtonanceaportionotheESC.Newtechnologyincludingupto6000newon-streetsingle-spacesmartmetersandnewPARCSorCitygarages.121980OldSacramentogarageconstructed.2007Citysrston-streetpaystationsestablished. 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID57CurrentConditionsForillustrativepurposesthestudyareaisdividedintoveocusareasasshowninFigureP-1.Thereareover24000on-streetparkingspacesinthestudyarea.Approximately5500othesespacesaremetered.Thereareover85000of-streetparkingspacesowhichabout39percentareavailableorpublicuse.About10000otheof-streetspacesaremanagedbytheCity.Middayonatypicalweekdayisthepredominanttimeopeakparkingdemandinthestudyareadueprimarilytoemployeeparkingdemand.AsshowninFigureP-2on-streetparkingisover85percentoccupiedinFocusArea1withhighestparkingdemandinOldSacramentoandtheareassurroundingtheStateCapitol.Inthisocusareaabout45percentotheblocksareullyoccupied.On-streetdemandissomewhatlowerinFocusAreas2through4withonly19percentoccupancyinFocusArea5.Middayweekdayof-streetparkingdemandisgenerallylowerthanon-streetdemand.FocusArea1displaysthehighestdemand62percentwhileotherocusareasvaryrom46to56percent.Beyondmiddayonatypicalweekdaythereareperiodsohigherthanaveragedemandoneveningsinthosedistrictswithrestaurantsandentertainmentvenues.AsanexampleOldSacramentoandanareaoMidtowngenerallyborderedbyLStreet20thStreetPStreetand 5815thStreetexhibitover85percenton-streetoccupancyonFridayevenings.Intheutureitisanticipatedthatincreasesinthesupplyoparkingwilllagbehindeconomicgrowth.Theamountoon-streetparkingisessentiallycappedandrecentzoningchangesrequireewerparkingspacesordevelopmentthanwhathasbeenhistoricallyprovided.Someexistinganduturedemandwillbeamelioratedbyshitstonon-automotivemodestransitwalkbikeinfuencedbyexpandedalternativemodenetworksmixed-usedevelopmentandmoreresidencesinthestudyarea.Parkingdemandisalsoexpectedtoincreaseoneveningsandweekendsaslandusechangestransormthestudyarearomanemployment-orienteddistricttoamixed-usearea.ParkingmanagementcanhelpcontrolparkingsupplyanddemandtobalancethediverseneedsotheCityandusersotheGrid.Thisinvolvesprioritizingparkingaccordingtotypeousere.g.employeesshopperseventattendeesresidentstouristetc.bylocationtimeodayparkingdurationandcost.Emergingsmartparkingtechnologiese.g.realtimesupplydemandinormationwayndingnavigationparkingappsonlinereservationsetc.canimproveusersatisactionwhilemitigatingenvironmentalimpacts. 2.0STATEOFTHEGRID59ChallengesAccommodatingtheautomobileparkingvs.encouragingnon-automotivemodes.Providingampleparkingatareasonablecosttoencouragesupportbusinessandeconomicdevelopment.Acceptabilityoincreasedparkingcostsassupplyincreasesrelativetodemand.Balancingsupplyoremployeesvisitorsresidents.Managementothesystemona247basisincludingexpandingmeteredareasandtimes.Publicvs.privatesectorrolesinparkingsupplyandoperations.Sufcientrevenuetomaintainparkingstructures.Freeall-dayon-streetparkingordisabledplacardholders.PreerentialparkingprogramssuchasEVparkingcharging.Flexiblemanagementoon-streetparkingvs.Citycodesregulationsreview.StrengthsOpportunitiesAmpleexistingparkingsupplyinexcessodemandinmostareasduringmosttimeperiods.Emergingsmartparkingtechnologies.Userinteracesappsonlinereservationswayndingetc..Real-timedatasupportingparkingmanagementdecisions.Sharingparkingsupplybytimeodayordierentusergroupse.g.daytimeemployeeseveningeventattendees. 60 AcknowledgmentsFedoliaSparkyHarrisCityofSacramentoReportpreparedbyBobGrandyFehrPeersDavidCarterFehrPeersSarahHollandFehrPeersJohnLongDKSAssociates2014CityofSacramento Sacramento